This depends on the sales agreement between the cardholder and the merchant. For example, you purchased a pair of shoes from a physical store and the terms of sale stated a no-return policy which you have sighted, signed and acknowledged. If so, you will have no rights to dispute the transaction.
However, if you made an online purchase and the merchandise you received was not as described or it arrived damaged, you can file a dispute. For example, you ordered an L-sized dress but you received an S-sized dress or a dress of a different colour instead, you have a right to dispute.
In this case, you should first make efforts to contact and resolve the dispute with the merchant to either get an exchange or a refund upon returning the merchandise. If the merchant refuses, you can then file a dispute with your card-issuing bank. You will need to provide documentary proof that the wrong or defective product was delivered in order for the bank to initiate a chargeback.